FEA Based Composite Material Design and Optimization: Abaqus, Ansys, Matlab and LS-DYNA
Finite Element Method and in general view, Simulation Driven Design is an efficient tool for development and simulation of Composite material models of Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites, Ceramic Matrix Composites, Nanocomposite, Rubber and Elastomer Composites, woven Composite, honeycomb cores, reinforced concrete, soil, bones ,Discontinuous Fiber, UD Composit and various other heterogeneous materials.
Composite material modeling Consultant, Training and Simulation services of Enteknograte cover wide range of industry using advanced FEA Technology for design, ultimate failure, fatigue, fracture, impact, crash, environmental degradation, and multiphysics simulations with sophisticated FEA solvers such as Abaqus, Ansys, LS-DYNA, RADIOSS, COMSOL and MSC MARC. Enteknograte engineering team can develop user defined constitutive equation and Procedure for Composite simulation as Plug-in as client preferred FEA Software or even individual software for special industrial and research application in engineering programming language environment such as Matlab, Python and Fortran.
What Enteknograte do with FEA Based Simulation Design in Composite Material Engineering:
• Multi-scale analyses to predict the nonlinear microstructure behavior of plastic & composite materials & structures
• Speeds up the development process for composite materials and structures
• Perform detailed analyses of materials on the microstructure level
• Derive microstructure material models suited for multi-scale coupling of the micro- and macroscopic level
• Bridges the gap between manufacturing and performance
• Understand Thermal, Thermo-Mechanical and Electrical behaviour of New Material
• Crash Performance simulation
• Fatigue and Creep assessment of Composite and New Material
• Acoustic and Vibration analysis before Manufacturing
• Stiffness and Strength properties
FEA Based Simulation of Rubber Matrix Composite
Tires, anti-vibration systems, seals or hoses are rubber based components which turn into high-tech systems as soon as their material properties are tuned by embedded inclusions. A simple tire unfolds its performance due to influences from various scales. On the microscopic scale carbon black or mica particles are filled into the rubber matrix to compound materials with specific properties. On the belt edge a sophisticated weave of embedded steel fibers controls the footprint of the tire.
Material suppliers benefit from virtual laboratories which allow to gain deep insight into rubber composite materials. In-depth investigations and screening of material candidates allow to build new functional rubber systems in a quick and cost efficient manner. Providers of rubber components boost their design strategy by taking into account the full complexity of rubber composites when computing the target performance of their parts.
Enteknograte provides Engineering Consultant and Training service to investigate complex rubber components on all scales include:
• Nonlinear, large deformation material models
• Investigation of microstructure evolution in RVEs
• Effective material properties from RVE computations
• Mean field homogenization
• Multi-scale analyses coupling the microstructure to the macroscopic response of the rubber part
FEA Based Simulation of Hard Metals
Hard metals are functional materials with tuned performances arising from the composite microstructure. Understanding those composites on the microstructural level is key for material suppliers who need to innovate their products. Hard metals are two-phase materials with significantly differing mechanical properties on the microstructural level. Material properties are tuned by varying the content and microstructure of a hard inclusion phase. Key to further material development is to understand and optimize microstructural stresses in the composite.
The complexity of hard metal microstructures makes it extremely difficult to calculate stresses and strains at the microstructural level, especially in three-dimensional analyses. Enteknograte Engineering team use combination of advanced Numerical simulation FEA tools and customize them with Programming and developing user defined constitutive equation with Fortran, Matlab and Python to solve this problem and verify the results.
Key Features of our Simulation:
• Realistic RVE of hard metal microstructures dependent on content, grain size
• Computation of microstructural stresses & strains based on FE technology
• Probabilistic distribution functions and homogenized material properties
FEA Based Simulation of Plastic materials
For Plastic Materials such as Thermoplastics (PA, PP, PC, POM, PPA) and Thermosets (Epoxy, Polyurethane) reinforced with short, long or continuous glass and/or carbon fibers, taking into account the effect of the manufacturing process, like compression and injection molding of the performance of the part, is the most important challenge in design procedure. Enteknograte engineering team use FEA based simulation and design within advanced CAE software for investigation of modal, creep, stiffness, crash, durability/fatigue of plastic material based structures.
A special case in Plastic Material is that Short fibers reinforcement leads to an anisotropic behavior for the material. Other effects resulting from the manufacturing process – like weldline and residual stresses – can be also considered in simulation. In the case of short fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP), advanced modelling solution used to capture the bundle effect that can be observed only with long fibers.
FEA Based Simulation of Discontinuous Fiber Composites
Discontinuous Fiber Composites consist of chopped UD (unidirectional composite) slices, called chips or strands. DFC may contain up to 100% of strands. The increased interest in this material is mainly due to its adaptability to complex geometries for which conventional composite materials are not suitable. Furthermore, it offers high production throughput by comparison to more conventional composites.
Enteknograte Engineers evaluate the material response by means of full field homogenization based on the finite element method. The proposed solution makes it possible to evaluate the variability of the mechanical behavior of the microstructure and influence of microstructural properties on its macroscopic behavior.
FEA Based Simulation of UD CompositesUnidirectional composites (UD) offer a large playground to tune optimal material properties. Thermoset and thermoplastic matrices are reinforced with different types of fibers: glass, carbon, aramid, etc. UD fibers are straight and non-crimped. In the laminate, they are laid up in specific stacking sequences, varying the fiber volume fraction, the thickness and orientation of plies. This results in the highest possible in-plane laminate properties in the final composite component construction. It is the general design principle for UD composites to use material properties in an optimal way. FEA Based virtual design and optimization of UD composites plays an increasingly important role in time and cost efficient development strategies. Enteknograte Engineering team offers a full set of capabilities for the design and simulation and optimization of UD composite materials and structures. Key to success is the progressive failure model which allows to take into account the anisotropic damage of the UD material.
FEA Based Simulation of Woven composites
Woven composites are typically draped onto more or less complex surfaces to produce structural parts. The overall objective is to use light-weight materials with the best stiffness and strength properties possible. The draping process can have significant impact on local warp and weft angles which leads to a local variation of effective material properties. Understanding the connection between the warp / weft microstructure, the resulting material properties and finally their influence on the part performance is crucial knowledge in the design process of woven composite structure.
Enteknograte Engineering team Consultant and Training service offers strong FEA based Design and Simulation in woven composite materials and structures.
We use advanced FEA tools for material investigations based on an advanced woven model that is capable to consider the underlying weave pattern and yarn structure that cover weave patterns in which the warp yarns go across multiple layers of weft yarns, hence improving the interlaminar toughness and the impact resistance of the material. Structural analyses set up based on local warp / weft information from draping simulations. Material modeling performed fully nonlinear, temperature and strain rate dependent.
FEA Based Simulation of Braided Composites
With braided composites, the reinforcement does not need to be cut to shape from a roll and laid down onto the mold. It is directly braided around a mandrel which has the shape of the part to be made. This speeds up the manufacturing process but requires a dedicated equipment. This process further makes it possible to produce more complex parts which, however, are limited to convex shapes and hollow profiles.
Enteknograte have strong capabilities for the designing and simulation of braided composite materials and structures using combination of advanced FEA and optimization tools based on advanced models which are capable of considering the underlying yarn structure and braiding pattern including yarns going across multiple layers and inlays.
Just as for the woven composites, material modeling can be performed fully nonlinear, temperature and strain rate dependent. Failure is derived from the microscopic responses in the material resulting in a realistic description of the experimentally observed strengths.
The purpose of material engineering is to take a simulation approach for the identification of promising candidates for new composite materials, thereby reducing the amount of experiments needed. This helps to save money and to reduce the time needed to develop new materials.
Enteknograte provides process simulation solutions for the additive manufacturing of polymers. It helps process engineer to anticipate manufacturing issues and optimize part quality by minimize warpage and residual stresses by predicting the relative influence of the various process parameters.
The purpose of structural engineering is to design full composite parts. The focus is on the part performance as it depends on the material characteristics and the manufacturing method and conditions that were used for the individual design.
Reverse Engineering in Composite Material Simulation
Material Engineering is the art of understanding composites in-depth, to innovate materials based on this knowledge and to follow a micromechanical approach to describe their real performance. In general, a direct engineering approach is used, meaning that per-phase properties of composite constituents are given directly in combination with microstructure information and composite properties are computed on that base and allows insight into materials and to systematically understand mechanisms that dominate the macroscopic material properties arising from the microscopic composition.
Material models must correlate to experimental behavior as closely as possible. For this purpose a reverse engineering procedure is used that results in the parametrization of micro-mechanical models and their adaption to a set of anisotropic material measurements to meet the global composite performance best possible.
FEA and CFD Based Simulation
Design structural parts with in depth knowledge about composite materials specificities in:
Mechanical properties for Material Engineering
For all types of composite material, mechanical performances like Stiffness, Creep and relaxation, Strength and durability are computed by advanced FEA tools by using the Mean-Field homogenization technique to obtain:
• Stress-strain curve of the composite
• Creep and relaxation behavior of the composite
• Average stress and average strain
• Constituent of the composite
• Strength of the composite
• Viscous effects and coatings
• Decohesion at the fiber-matrix interface
Thermo-Mechanical properties for Composite Material
Enteknograte Engineering team include thermo-mechanical material properties as important part of Design Procedure using FEA based Simulation and Optimization to simulate thermo-mechanical performances of composite materials. For all types of composite material, thermo-mechanical performance, as thermal expansion and stiffness as function of the temperature, is computed with Finite Element Analysis using the Mean-Field homogenization technique. Enteknograte engineering team consultant and training service in thermo-mechanical simulation of materials include:
• Evolution of the stiffness matrix of the composite with the temperature
• Stress-strain curve of the composite for a given thermo-mechanical load
• Temperature Dependent Viscose effect
• Curing effect of Metal Matrix Composite
Electrical conductivity properties for Material Engineering
Electrical conductivity plays an essential role in aerospace and electronic applications. Nanocomposite materials are used in this field to improve or to limit the electrical conductivity of some components. The electrical conductivity of the material is then driven by the amount of nano fillers and the distance between fillers. For all types of composite material, the electrical conductivity of the composite is computed by Finite Element Method by using the Mean-Field homogenization technique.
Stiffness and Strength properties for Structural Engineering
The choice of technology of composite materials combined with numerical simulation allows to optimize the structures with respect to objectives in the best delay. One of the challenges for designers during the simulation is to take into account the specificity of these materials, i.e. their anisotropic behavior, resistance to fracture and their specific mechanism of damage. Enteknograte engineering teams consultant and training service in Stiffness and Strength simulation of materials include:
• predictive models based on the micro-structure of the material
• influence of the manufacturing process on the local mechanical behavior and stiffness
• material models for progressive failure analysis
• optimization of architecture of the composite of each component of the structure.
Application for Stiffness and Strength simulation of new material in the industry:
• Aerospace: Wings, panels, engine blades, nacelles, interior component, virtual material testing.
• Automotive: Chassis, wheels, connecting rods, full body systems, door, seat, dashboard, interior component, drivetrain component, underhood, oil cooler bracket, front-end carrier, virtual material testing.
• Biomedical: Prosthesis, implants.
• Energy: Pipes, vessel, valves, fan blade, wind turbines blade, pump body.
• Electronics: Connectors, clips, electronic racks and housing assemblies.
Modeling for Acoustics and Vibrations in Structural Engineering
NVH (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness) is one of the most often directly perceived quality traits of a product, and is therefore one of the most sought after targets for performance by the product development team to help differentiate themselves from competition. This requires fine modeling of local stiffness throughout the structure to accurately identify its vibrational behavior.
FEA based multi-scale modeling allow the our engineers to access to new micro-structural design parameters, for both reinforced plastics and UD, woven or braided composites for lightweight design with vibrational behavior identification. To optimize the material cost and weight of the structure, Enteknograte design team able to define the best percentage and the best orientation of fibers in the material directly in the design of components and the complete vehicle.
Enteknograte Noise and Vibration simulations include:
• Frequency response analysis
• Modal participation factor
• Normal mode analysis
• Random response analysis
• Transient response analysis
Application on Acoustics and Vibrations in the industry:
Explicit Dynamic Analysis of Composite Material for Impact and Crash Studies
In the steady quest for lightweighting solutions, continuous carbon fiber composites are becoming more approachable for design, now not only used in the aerospace but also the automotive industries. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) have been used for a long time in Aerospace for primary structure components and they are now being integrated into car body structures, used for their high stiffness and strength and low weight.
The material properties of composites structures (chopped or continuous fibers) are much more complex than metal, especially with respect to failure. FEA based Simulation and design allows to choose the correct failure modeling according to the type of micro-structure definition.
Enteknograte Engineers are very skilled in design of composite structural parts for crash and impact analysis using advanced finite element tools:
• Deformation and damage analysis
• Material failure predictions
• Drop and crushing testing
• High-speed and hypervelocity impacts
• Highly nonlinear, transient dynamic forces
• Explosive loading and forming
Application for Crash and Impact in the industry:
Aerospace and Defense: Bird strike, damage tolerance, ballistic impact, crashworthiness, ice impact.
Electronics: Drop test.
Energy: Wind turbine blade stability, bird impact, pipe impact.
Fatigue & Durability: Progressive failure simulation in composite parts for Structural Engineering toward Fatigue and Durability analysis.
One of the most challenging tasks of design and development process is prediction of failure over time. Without knowledge of how a structure might fail, it is harder to improve its safety performance. Durability analysis from finite element models is becoming increasingly accepted in the design process.
Fatigue modeling of chopped and continuous fiber polymer composites is challenging due to their anisotropic, heterogeneous and viscous material properties as well as their process-dependent microstructure. Enteknograte Engineers can model high cycle fatigue (HCF) of fiber reinforced composites using FEA tools Like VirtualLab Durability, nCode DesignLife and FE-SAFE.
CFD and FEA based Fortran, C++, Matlab and Python Programming
Considering complexity and needs to have new procedure and constitutive equation, we must try to develop new FEA and CFD based software to overcome engineering challenges.
FEA and CFD based Programming needs experience and deep knowledge in both Solid or fluid mechanics and programming language such as Matlab, Fortran, C++ and Python.
We use subroutine’s with programming languages such as Fortan, C and Python in CFD and FEA sofware such as Abaqus, Ansys, Fluent and Star-ccm+ to add new capability and Constitutive equation.
Enteknograte use Mathematical Methods and Models for Engineering Simulation. We, focuses on numerical modelling and algorithms development for the solution of challenging problems in several engineering sectors specialized in the development of software for the numerical discretization of partial differential equations, linear algebra, optimization, data analysis, High Performance Computing for several engineering applications.
Real world Simulation: Combination of experience and advanced analysis tools
Calling upon our wide base of in-house capabilities covering strategic and technical consulting, engineering, manufacturing ( Casting, Forming and Welding) and analytical software development – we offer each of our clients the individual level of support they are looking for, providing transparency, time savings and cost efficiencies.
Enteknograte engineers participate in method development, advanced simulation work, software training and support. Over experiences in engineering consulting and design development, enables Enteknograte’s engineering team to display strong/enormous client focus and engineering experience. The Enteknograte team supports engineering communities to leverage CFD-FEA simulation softwares and methodologies. It leads to the creation of tailored solutions, aligned with the overall product development process of Enteknograte clients.
CAE Simulation: CFD, FEA, System Modeling, 1D-3D coupling
Integrated expertise covering every Equipment component analysis. From concept through to manufacture and product launch, and for new designs or Equipment modifications, we provide engineering simulation expertise across projects of all sizes. Simulation has become a key enabling factor in the development of highly competitive and advanced Equipment systems. CAE methods play a vital role in defining new Equipment concepts.