FEA (Finite Element Analysis) & CFD Based Simulation of Blast, Explosion & Fire: Blast Resistance Certification with Protection Against Ballistic Attacks for Windows, Doors, Buildings and Vehicles

FEA & CFD Based Simulation Design Analysis Virtual prototyping MultiObjective Optimization

Contemporary design requirements associated with the protection of life and property often require consideration for blast effects resulting from either accidental or intentional explosions. Proper treatment of blast effects in structural systems requires specialized knowledge ranging from non-linear responses of structures to short-duration dynamic loading. Enteknograte’s Research engineers have extensive training and experience in managing all structural response considerations related to high-energy events, including blast design, explosion effects and mitigation, and finite clement modeling of blast events. Design and validation of structures against blast loads are important for modern society in order to protect and secure its citizen. Since it is a challenge to validate and optimise protective structures against blast loads using full-scale experimental tests, we have to turn our attention towards advanced numerical tools like the CFD and finite element method.

FEA (Finite Element Analysis) Simulation and Analysis of Blast Door in Near Field Explosion

Simulation numerical methods for Blast loads

Several different finite element techniques can be used to describe the response of structures due to blast loads. Some of these are:

  • A pure Lagrangian formulation,
  • An initial Eulerian simulation (to determine the load) followed by a Lagrangian simulation (for the structural response) and
  • A hybrid technique that combines the advantages of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods to have a full coupling between the blast waves and the deformation of the structure.

Ideally, all blast simulations should be carried out using the fully coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, but this may not be practical as the computational time increases considerably when going from a pure Lagrangian to a fully coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation.

Engineering Simulation software that we use for Blast and Explosion such as air blast, Underwater explosion (UNDEX) and Fragmentation

Enteknograte engineers simulate the Blast and Explosion with innovative CAE and virtual prototyping available in the non-linear structural codes MSC Dytran, LS-DYNA, Ansys Autodyn, and ABAQUS. Enteknograte Engineers can simulate any type of Blast and Explosion such as air blast, Underwater explosion (UNDEX) and Fragmentation due to blast to survey structural integrity in High Rate Loading Condition.

Our engineers have strong backgrounds in FEM(Finite Element Method) and complicated Multiphysics simulation that need deep knowledge and are fluent in the codes like LS-DYNA, Ansys and ABAQUS. We can develop special purpose user subroutine (UMAT) based on clients need to empower simulation environment to overcome any complicated problem in Blast and explosion load condition and user defined material constitutive equation for composites and special purpose Concrete including fracture mechanics of concrete in different strain rate.

Blast explosion fire cfd fea simulation ansys abaqus ls-dyna autodyn fluent star-ccm openfoam

Computational Fluid Dynamics for BLAST, Explosion and Fire simulation

Blast loads on buildings can be determined through the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer programs. The basic premise of CFD modeling is to discretize the building and surrounding area encompassing the blast source and adjacent obstacles into small regular cells of finite volume and then solve the governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy within each cell, taking into account the effects of adjacent cells.

Among other uses, CFD is utilized to simulate the propagation of blast waves in an environment of obstacles, to simulate pressures on unusually-shaped buildings, to simulate leakage through openings into buildings, to simulate interior explosions, and to simulate near-field explosion effects. Where applicable, CFD can be used as an alternative to the more commonly used empirical methods.

It should be understood that CFD results are sensitive to modeling techniques and the software used. CFD programs can employ a true first principles approach which includes turbulence modeling and detailed combustion, or a semi-empirical approach where simplifications of the explosion source are made, based on test data and guidance, to simplify and speed the analysis. Phenomological models are sometimes used to simplify the analysis by using numerical modeling of selected explosion phenomena to capture important features of blast propagation. As with most simulations, the greater the detail of the model, the greater the potential accuracy of the result.

By using Accurate mechanisms that representing every class of explosion and Fire important for this analysis and combination of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools such as MSC Cradle, Ansys Fluent, AVL Fire, Converge CFD, Siemens Star-ccm+ enable Enteknograte engineering team to most detailed simulation of Fire and Explosion in industrial and defense projects.

Simulia Abaqus concrete Blast & explosion , Crash Test, Fracture & Damage, Impact & Penetration
Tunnel Explosion Blast Concrete damage and fracture Civil engineering FEA Finite element Simulation Enteknograte, Abaqus Ansys Ls-dyna Enteknograte4
Blast & explosion in Tunnel

Enteknograte Research Blast engineering and Explosion mitigation capabilities include:

  • The use of methods ranging from classical to nonlinear transient Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
  • Industrial equipment subjected to accidental explosions
  • Commercial curtain wall and window systems
  • New construction and retrofit of existing systems
  • Hardening of historical buildings
  • Inventive solutions for unusual applications



Blast explosion fire cfd fea simulation ansys abaqus ls-dyna autodyn fluent star-ccm openfoam
Blast explosion fire cfd fea simulation ansys abaqus ls-dyna autodyn fluent star-ccm openfoam

Design procedures for blast, explosion and fire analysis of offshore structures

Explosions, fires and other accidents are major risks in the offshore industry. Extreme loads arising for structural from accidents create a challenge engineers in the design of safe and weight-efficient structures. The use of design procedures based on state-of-the-art computational technology allows for weight-optimised structural designs that meet defined safety requirements. The finite element method (FEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a computational tools has been extensively used in the offshore industry. It has been applied both for global and local simulation to study the behavior of the offshore structures.

The following aspects are normally considered in order to achieve an optimum design for blast-resistant walls and partitions:

  • Definition of design explosion and fire loads
  • Establishment of the behavior of materials to be used for the design for high rate loads
  • Determination of the behavior and strength of walls by means of non-linear FE modelling
Blast explosion fire cfd fea simulation ansys abaqus ls-dyna autodyn fluent star-ccm openfoam
ansys ls-dyna explosion blast wave FEA design simulation

FE modelling for offshore structures resistant to explosions and fires

Design procedures for creating offshore structures resistant to explosions and fires are normally based on the selection of design principles such as deterministic, probabilistic and risk-based design.

Methods used in designing structures that are resistant to explosions and fires include simplified methods and non-linear FE modelling and analysis. FE models involve accurate description of modelling techniques including modelling of structures, materials, and fire and explosion loads.

Safety doors must be built to meet OSHA, MSHA, NFPA Standards, FM Global Standards, European ATEX Directives and other many other standards when needed. Our advanced finite element simulation-based design for blast, explosion and fire will help you to satisfy all aspect of regulations in design step.

Assessment of fire and explosion loads

Enteknograte performs assessment of fire and explosion loads using state-of-the-art CFD software. Based on assessments of fire and explosion loads, deterministic or probabilistic models of loads are established for direct use in the design process for offshore installations.

Enteknograte carries out structural design verification as well as studies of structures subjected to fires and explosions. Complex FE models of structures are developed and used in response and structural strength simulations. We use advanced numerical techniques to real-world behavior capturing of systems in high rate loading in numerous cases, such as validate military vehicle designs, new infrastructure protection solutions or personal armour.

Combinated Security: Blast Resistance with Protection Against Ballistic Attacks

Attack Specifications

  • EN 1627                     Pedestrian door-sets, windows, curtain walling, grilles and shutters – Burglar resistance – Requirements and classification
  • LPS 1270                    Requirements & testing procedures for the LPCB approval & Listing of intruder resistant security glazing unit
  • LPS 1175                    Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB certification and listing of intruder resistant building components, strongpoints, security enclosures and free-standing barriers
  • EN 356                         Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against manual attack.

Ballistic Specifications and Standards

  • EN 1063                     Glass in Building – Security Glazing – Testing and Classification of Resistance Against Bullet Attack
  • UL 752                         Standard for Bullet-Resisting Equipment
  • BS 5051                       Bullet-resistant glazing – Part 1:  for interior use- Part 2: for Exterior use
  • NIJ 0108.01             US National Institute of Justice Standard-Test and Certification for Ballistic Resistant Materials
  • EN 1522/3                Windows, doors, shutters and blinds – Bullet resistance – Requirements and classification / Test method
  • BSI PAS 68:2013. Impact test specifications for vehicle security barriers
  • STANAG 2920. Ballistic tests for personal armour.
  • STANAG 4164. Test procedures for armour perforation of anti-armour weapons
  • STANAG 4190. Test procedures for measuring behind armour effects of anti-armour weapons



moving bullet projectile blast explosion cfd fea simulation ansys ls-dyna design


Design and simulation based assessment of woven Composites performance in high velocity impact to pass NIJ (US National Institute of Justice Standard-Test and Certification for Ballistic Resistant Materials)

Design and simulation based assessment of Ceramic based Composites performance in high velocity impact to pass NIJ (US National Institute of Justice Standard-Test and Certification for Ballistic Resistant Materials)

Blast Specifications Test Standard

  • GSA-TS01:2003     Standard Test Method for Glazing and Window Systems Subject to Dynamic Overpressure Loadings
  • EN 13541                   Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against explosion pressure 
  • EN 13123-2              Windows, doors and shutters – Explosion resistance – Requirements and classification
  • ASTM F1642, Standard Test Method for Glazing and Glazing Systems Subject to Airblast Loadings
  • ISO 16933, Glass in buildings — Explosion-resistant security glazing — Test and classification for arena air-blast loading
  • EN 13124-1, Windows, doors and shutters — Explosion resistance — Test method — Part 1: Shock tube
  • EN 13124-2, Windows, doors and shutters — Explosion resistance — Test method — Part 2: Range test
  • EN 135411), Glass in building — Security glazing — Testing and classification of resistance against explosion pressure
  • N. F. International Standards for Blast Resistant Glazing
  • US Army Technical Manual 5-855, Fundamentals of protective design for conventional weapons

Fire Specifications Test Standard

  • UL 10C           Positive Fire Pressure Tests of Door Assemblies 
  • EN 1363-1    Fire resistance tests –Part 1: General Requirements
  • EN 1364-1     Fire resistance tests for non-load-bearing elements – Part 1: Walls
  • BS 476 Part 22     Fire tests on building materials and structures
  • EN 1634-1   Fire resistance and smoke control tests for door and shutter assemblies, openable windows and elements of building hardware 
  • HOSDB 70/08. Determination of the explosion resistance of litter and recycling bins – Method
  • HOSDB 21/09. Test standard for Protected Spaces in Buildings (Explosion Resistant Doors and Walls)
blast explosion cfd fea simulation ansys ls-dyna design
Underwater Explosion Simulation (UNDEX)


We pride ourselves on empowering each client to overcome the challenges of their most demanding projects.

Enteknograte offers a Virtual Engineering approach with FEA tools such as MSC Softwrae(Simufact, Digimat, Nastran, MSC APEX, Actran Acoustic solver), ABAQUS, Ansys, and LS-Dyna, encompassing the accurate prediction of in-service loads, the performance evaluation, and the integrity assessment including the influence of manufacturing the components.
Hexagon MSC Software© CoBrand RGB PRIMARY Logo

Composite Material Design and Optimization

Fatigue, Fracture, Impact, Crash, Acoustics and Vibration with Abaqus, Ansys, COMSOL and LS-DYNA
Finite Element Method is an efficient tool for development and simulation of Composite material models of Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites, Ceramic Matrix Composites, Nanocomposite, Rubber and Elastomer Composites, woven Composite, honeycomb cores, reinforced concrete, soil, bones ,Discontinuous Fiber, UD Composit and various other heterogeneous materials. Enteknograte Engineers are very skilled in design of composite structural parts for crash and impact analysis using advanced finite element tools: Deformation and damage analysis, Material failure predictions, Drop and crushing testing, High-speed and hypervelocity impacts, Highly nonlinear transient dynamic forces, Explosive loading and forming.

Integrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Machine Learning - Deep Learning with CFD & FEA Simulation

Machine learning is a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. It is a branch of Artificial Intelligence based on the idea that systems can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention. With Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in CAE, that is Mechanical Engineering and FEA and CFD Simulations as design tools, our CAE engineers evaluate the possible changes (and limits) coming from Machine learning, whether Deep Learning (DL), or Support vector machine (SVM) or even Genetic algorithms to specify definitive influence in some optimization problems and the solution of complex systems.

Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries: Finite Element and CFD Simulation-Based Design

Fire and gas dispersion, Blast Prevention
With combination of deep knowledge and experience in FEA and CFD and sophisticated simulation tools, Enteknograte engineers can solve any problem with any level of complexity in Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries: Fire and gas dispersion, Design for safety of operation and crew in case of fire and chemicals leak, Design integrity for offshore vessels and platform for both structural and safety concerns in blast and explosion scenarios, Simulate pollutant dispersion and what-if conditions for Pool fires, Accidental release and Cloud dispersion.

Finite element analysis of concrete: Discrete cracking, Smeared crack and XFEM for concrete fracture and damage Simulation

In materials science, fracture toughness refers to the ability of a material containing a crack to resist fracture. Specifically, fracture toughness testing characterizes resistance to fracture in a neutral environment with a sharp crack, and is one of the most important properties of any material for virtually all design applications. Finite Element (FEA) Fracture simulation is used in design and fabrication to understand and prevent brittle fracture in concrete structures. It can also be used to determine the useful life of concrete structures under different conditions, including fatigue, corrosion and elevated temperatures.

CFD and FEA in Civil Engineering: Seismic Design, Earthquake, Tunnel, Dam, Concrete Structures and Geotechnical Multiphysics Simulation

Enteknograte, offer a wide range of consulting services based on many years of experience using FEA and CFD: Coupled/Multiphysics problems: mechanics of porous media, spalling of concrete, freezing of ground and young hardening concrete, Borehole stability problems, Constitutive modeling of concrete, Settlement damage on concrete and masonry constructions, Pipelines, Earthquake analysis, Tunnel, Dam and Geotechnical Multiphysics Simulation.

Marine and Shipbuilding Industry: Finite Element and CFD Based Simulation and Design

Our experience in Marine and Shipbuilding Industry include: Fatigue assessment studies, Modal and vibration analyses, Seakeeping and seaworthiness assessment, Maneuvering studies, Simulation and evaluation of systems, Damage surveys and investigations, Tie-down structural calculations and approval, Collision Investigation, modeling and analysis, Optimizing the Hydrodynamic Performance of Hull, Cavitation, Marine Vibro-Acoustic, Dynamic Integrity.

CFD Simulation of Reacting Flows and Combustion

By using Accurate reaction mechanisms that representing every class of reaction important for combustion analysis and combination of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion simulation tools such as Kiva, Ansys Fluent, Ansys Forte, AVL Fire, Converge CFD, Siemens Star-ccm+ , MSC Cradle and System Modeling software such as Matlab Simulink and GT-Suite enable Enteknograte engineering team to reduce chemistry analysis time by orders of magnitude, virtually eliminating the bottleneck that chemistry integration produces during the simulation process.

FEA and CFD Simulation for Aerospace and Defense

Aerodynamics, Acoustics, Fatigue and Vibration, Thermal Analysis, Crash & Impact
Enteknograte provides a complete solution for aero-structure that addresses multi-disciplinary domains and engineering challenges combining CFD-FEA and 1D-3D multi-objective modeling: Complete wing simulation Dedicated composite simulation for aircraft: designing, analyzing and optimizing Composite material structure, Liquid Composite Molding, composite forming simulation for doors, wings, tails, Horizontal & vertical tailplane simulation, Moving part aerodynamics simulation, Nacelle aerodynamics simulation, Fatigue simulation of components: random vibro-acoustic loading, stress corrosion analysis and visualization

Heat Transfer and Thermal Analysis: Fluid-Structure Interaction with Coupled CFD and Finite Element Based Simulation

We analyze system-level thermal management of vehicle component, including underhood, underbody and brake systems, and design for heat shields, electronics cooling, HVAC, hybrid systems and human thermal comfort. Our Finite Element (LS-Dyna, Ansys, Abaqus) and CFD simulation (Siemens Start-ccm+, Ansys Fluent , Ansys CFX and OpenFoam) for heat transfer analysis, thermal management, and virtual test process can save time and money in the design and development process, while also improving the thermal comfort and overall quality of the final product.

Crash Test and Crashworthiness

Finite Element Simulation of Crash Test and Crashworthiness with LS-Dyna, Abaqus and PAM-CRASH Including Airbag & Seat Belt Effectiveness, Trucks, Bus and eVTOL.
Enteknograte engineers simulate the crash safety with innovative CAE and virtual prototyping available in the non-linear structural codes: LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH, RADIOSS and ABAQUS. We offer advanced FEA modeling consultancy services. We are experienced with automotive crash safety and consumer crash test protocols such as (frontal impact), (side impact), IIHS and EuroNCAP. Our engineers have Tier1 backgrounds in FEM (Finite Element Method) and are fluent in the codes: LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH, RADIOSS and ABAQUS.

Simulia Abaqus: Crash Test, Fracture & Damage, Blast & Explosion, Impact & Penetration, Thermal Analysis, Drop Test, Acoustics and Vibro-Acoustics

Abaqus is employed for simulating ballistic impacts and penetration events. It helps assess the behavior of materials and structures when subjected to high-velocity projectiles, such as bullets, fragments, and missiles. This analysis aids in optimizing armor designs and evaluating their effectiveness against different threats. Defense systems often need to withstand blast and explosion events. Abaqus is used to simulate these scenarios and assess the response of structures and protective measures. It helps evaluate the structural integrity, deformation, and damage caused by blasts, including the interaction between shock waves, shrapnel, and the surrounding environment.

Ansys AUTODYN: Explicit Software for High Velocity Impact, Blast & Explosion, Fracture & Damage

ANSYS AUTODYN software is an explicit analysis tool for modeling nonlinear dynamics of solids, fluids and gases as well as their interaction: Optimization and design of armor and anti-armor systems, Mine protection scheme design for personnel carriers, Building protection measures and insurance risk assessment for blast effects in city centers, Aircraft impact risk assessment for power stations, Performance studies of oil well perforating charges, Decommissioning of offshore platforms Shielding system design on the International Space Station, Safety assessment of particle accelerators, Characterization of materials subjected to high dynamic loading.

Ansys LS-DYNA Multiphysics Solver: Industry-Leading Explicit Simulation Software for Drop Tests, Impact and Penetration, Smashes and Crashes, Occupant Safety.

LS-DY­NA is the most ver­sa­tile soft­ware avail­able com­mer­cial­ly, ow­ing to its de­vel­op­ment strat­e­gy of one scal­able code that in­te­grates mul­ti-physics, mul­ti-stage, and mul­ti-scale ca­pa­bil­i­ties. Ansys LS-Dyna Main Applications: Crash- and pedestrian safety in automotive (Dummy, airbag, barrier Seat belt, retractors) , Bounce and drop tests ( Mobile phone, Consumer products Tools, Nuclear vessels), Bird strike, Engine blade containment, Material behaviour of composites, Blast and Explosion loading, Penetration and Impact problems

MSC Dytran: Explicit Transient Dynamic Solution for Crash, Impact, Blast, Explosion and Fluid-Structure Interaction

Dytran applications in industries: Aircraft ditching, fuel tank sloshing and rupture, bird strike simulation, engine blade containment, aircraft crashworthiness, seat design and safety, aircraft and cargo containment hardening, Airbag design and occupant safety, dummy modeling and seat design, vehicle impact and crash testing, tire hydroplaning, fuel tank sloshing and rupture, Shaped charge simulation and weapons design, projectile penetration and perforation of targets, hydrodynamic ram (HRAM), ship collision, underwater shock explosion (UNDEX), blast resistance and survivability, Bottle and container design, paper feeding, drop testing, sports equipment impact analysis, packaging design.