Finite Element Simulation of Crash Test and Crashworthiness with LS-Dyna, Abaqus and PAM-CRASH

FEA & CFD Based Simulation Design Analysis Virtual prototyping MultiObjective Optimization

Many real-world engineering situations involve severe loads applied over very brief time intervals. While testing is crucial to analyze these types of loading scenarios, it can be expensive and sometimes economically infeasible to conduct physical tests when the cost of each prototype is prohibitively high. Moreover, data from a single physical test can be insufficient and companies cannot afford to conduct several of them for more detailed information.
Crashworthiness focuses on occupant protection to reduce the number of fatal and serious injuries. This research is responsible for developing and upgrading test procedures for evaluating motor vehicle safety. Crashworthiness research encompasses new and improved vehicle design, safety countermeasures and equipment to enhance occupant safety.
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been the trend in virtual crash design over the last decade. The predictive capabilities of FEA allow engineers to fully understand a crash event in a virtual environment, thus limiting the number of physical tests that need to be executed and thus saving costs.

Enteknograte engineers simulate the crash safety with innovative CAE and virtual prototyping available in the non-linear structural codes: LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH, RADIOSS and ABAQUS. We offer advanced FEA modeling consultancy services. We are experienced with automotive crash safety and consumer crash test protocols such as (frontal impact), (side impact), IIHS and EuroNCAP. Our engineers have Tier1 backgrounds in FEM (Finite Element Method) and are fluent in the codes: LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH, RADIOSS and ABAQUS.

Occupant Restraint Systems

Occupant restraint systems are intended to control occupant motion within the vehicle during the crash. Occupant restraint system technologies (e.g. air bags, seat belts, seats, etc.) are continually advancing and are a major contributor to mitigating crash fatalities and injuries. However, a significant number of crash injuries still occur, and efforts are ongoing to further improve restraint effectiveness. Occupant restraint system development continues to evolve as new regulations and consumer demand drive more complex solutions:

  •  Advanced Air Bag Technology Research
  •  Air Bag Aggressivity Study
  •  Side Airbag Out-of-Position FEA Study

FEA of Frontal Crash Protection

Frontal crashes are a major source of injuries and fatalities in the field. we use FEA dummies to evaluate occupant protection in frontal impact crash test. These efforts study occupant response, possible implications for smaller occupants, and restraint effectiveness for a rear seat passenger:

  • Determination of Frontal Offset Test Conditions Based on FEA Crash Data
  • FEA Approaches to Occupant Response

Small Overlap / Oblique Crashes

Studies show that fatalities still happen with vehicles equipped with safety belts and airbags in both small overlap and oblique crashes. Small overlap crashes are crashes with all the damage outside the main longitudinal member. Oblique crashes engage one of the main longitudinal members and cause the occupant to move in an oblique manner. Therefore, the agency is trying to develop test procedure to reduce fatalities and injuries in these two crash modes.

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Enteknograte help a Startup company to simulate new special Concrete-based designed Jersey barrier crash test behavior to investigate its fracture pattern.

Heavy Trucks Crash Test Simulation

Heavy Truck safety is focused on occupant safety and underride guards.  Heavy truck occupant safety examines the causes of fatality and injury for heavy truck occupants, while truck underride research identifies the characteristics of underride events and contributing factors.

  • Truck Underride
  • Truck Occupant Safety

School Bus Crashworthiness & Crash Test

The governments try to ensure children safety in School Bus. But for investigation of crash effect and unwanted occurrences on children and level of injury, Finite element Method must be used to record force that transfer to the body in School bus and studying the absorbing mechanism and its level

FEA of Airbag Effectiveness in Crash Test

The deformation mechanism of vehicles was analyzed in full frontal, offset frontal and side impact scenarios. Enteknograte use non-linear structural codes LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH, RADIOSS and ABAQUS program to FEA of Airbag Effectiveness in Crash Test and its effectiveness studied in dummy in different position. The simulation results were compared with actual crash test data of the corresponding vehicles. Reliable Numerical Simulation reduce the number of crash tests required during the automobile design process.

VTOL e-VTOL UAM crashworthiness design Finite Element Simulation Crash Test MSC dytran Ls-Dyna Abaqus PAM-CRASH

eVTOLs crashworthiness design

Occupant safety is an integral part of the design, development, and operation of urban air mobility (UAM) systems. Emergency landing conditions design requirements specified in (Code of Federal Regulations) may not provide the level of safety for eVTOL vehicles.

The successful implementation of the UAM market will require emergency landing concepts that address real-world safety expectations. An integrated safety development process will help you maintain survivable volume, minimize deceleration loads to occupants, maintain egress paths and evaluate retention items of mass.

Enteknograte engineers optimize eVTOL aircraft crashworthiness from the conceptual design stage using most advanced computational tools.
How multibody models and optimization tools can be used to define integrated safety concepts for:

  • Landing gear and airframe crashworthiness
  • High-energy absorbing seats, and advanced restraints
  • Cabin subfloor structures
  • Energy-absorbing landing and take-off sites

Dummies for crash Test Simulation:

  • Frontal impact dummies
    • Hybrid II (50th percentile) rigid dummy for aeronautics applications
    • Express Hybrid III 50th, & 5th percentile dummies
    • Hybrid III 50th, 95th & 5th percentile dummies
  • Side impact dummies:
    • ES2 & ES2-re
    • FTSS SID-IIs SBL C & D
    • US SID
    • WorldSID 50%
    • WorldSID 5%
  • Rear impact dummy
    • BIORID IIg
  • Child dummies
    • Hybrid III 6 years
    • Hybrid III 10 years
    • P series 3, 6 and 10 years, 18 months
    • Q series 3 years
    • CRABI 12 months
  • Pedestrian impactors
    • Head (EEVC adults and Child, FMVSS 201)
    • Pedestrian Head forms EEVC
    • Lower leg EEVC impactor
    • Upper leg EEVC impactor
    • Standing HIII 50th rigid dummy
    • Standing HIII child 6 years rigid dummy
  • Human dummy model
    • Complete human model: Humos2
    • Human head, leg and foot models
  • Barriers :
    • Frontal barriers
    • ODB (ECE 94 frontal regulation) solid & shell models
    • PDB V8XT proposed by EEVC WG 15 for crash impact compatibility – shell & solid models
    • TRL full width (consumer information test NCAP) – shell & solid models
  • Side barriers
    • NHTSA FMVSS 214 – solid & shell models
    • Progress ECE 95– solid & shell models (Cellbond)
    • AEMDB V3.9 = new proposal to update regulation EEVC W13 – solid & shell models (Cellbond)
    • IIHS SUV Barrier – solid & shell models (Cellbond)
  • Rear barriers
    • RCAR IIHS low impact
    • US Rear impact barrier FMVSS 310
    • Rear impact ECE barrier


We pride ourselves on empowering each client to overcome the challenges of their most demanding projects.

Enteknograte offers a Virtual Engineering approach with FEA tools such as MSC Softwrae(Simufact, Digimat, Nastran, MSC APEX, Actran Acoustic solver), ABAQUS, Ansys, and LS-Dyna, encompassing the accurate prediction of in-service loads, the performance evaluation, and the integrity assessment including the influence of manufacturing the components.