Metal Forming: Finite Element Simulation of Heat Treatment
FEA & CFD Based Simulation Design Analysis Virtual prototyping MultiObjective Optimization
Most of the technologies for the production of forged parts are required heat treatment after deformation to obtain the desired properties, both on the surface and through the entire volume of the detail. Heat treatment is a process or a combination of processes to treat metallic components. The components, commonly made of steel(s), are temporarily heated to specific temperatures.
Taking into account the rate of heating and cooling, the material properties of a component can be altered and improved. The presence of certain agents can lead to changes in the carbon or nitrogen content of the component. In all heat treatment processes, there are several decisive and important factors: Time (heating and holding time), temperature, atmosphere, and quenching or cooling conditions.
In principle, there are two kinds of heat treatment processes: processes resulting in a thorough change of the microstructure and processes that result in merely changing regions close to the surface of the component. Examples of the former would be thermal processes, such as annealing and hardening. Examples of the latter, thermochemical processes, would be diffusion and coating processes, such as carburization, case hardening, nitrating, boriding.
Simulating the process reduces the amount of experimentation required during process design and process optimization. It also helps to smooth trial runs and the prototyping process. Through simulation, typical mistakes such as too much or too little hardening, cracks from residual stress or too much distortion can be discovered before they are made.
- Prediction of phase transformations, phase composition of the workpiece, both at the deformation and heat treatment processes.
- Diffusion and martensitic phase transformations at cooling and heating of material while accounting the latent heat of phase transitions and volume changes in the transformation process.
- The heat treatment for simulation of different production processes: quenching, tempering, annealing etc.