Cold Forming Finite Element Simulation
FEA & CFD Based Simulation Design Analysis Virtual prototyping MultiObjective Optimization
The most important manufacturing processes are cold heading and extrusion processes, but also punching, hobbing, thread rolling, and drawing processes. Cold forming is restricted to easily formable materials, or rather materials which can easily be transferred into a formable microstructural state.
Cold forming results in strain hardening, meaning both the strength and resistance to forming increase with ongoing deformation. Thus, cold formed components can withstand greater operational loads. At the same time, strain hardening results in reduced formability (ductility) of the material. If the component needs to be formed further, the strain hardening of the component has to be removed via recrystallization annealing. Cold forming and annealing are often part of a multi-stage process.
The high yield stress and strain hardening result in very high press forces in the manufacturing process, and shift the focus to the used forming dies and die materials. The die life essential for cold forming is often only achievable through prestressed dies, which means that the simulation of cold forming has to consider the effect of the stress rings in addition to the material flow. The realistic mapping of forces in the forming processes, and the consideration of the effects of spring back, while taking into account the elastic-plastic material law, are indispensable for a high precision simulation of cold forming processes.
Prevent common manufacturing errors such as:
- Wrinkle formation
- Markings created by shearing edges
- Insufficient mold filling
- Excessive press and die loads