Finite element simulation of Tunnel

FEA & CFD Based Simulation Design Analysis Virtual prototyping MultiObjective Optimization

With increasing congestion in modern cities, we are turning even more to underground transportation systems. The consequence is not only tunneling under existing structures but, often, tunneling under existing tunnels. Ground movement is an inevitable risk to nearby structures which must be carefully assessed, both at the planning stage and as the project unfolds. This, in addition to the potential negative effect on the safety of construction and the project cost, means that the ability to make these predictions accurately is key. Surface settlement caused by shallow tunnel construction in Greenfield sites can be predicted with some confidence. Surface settlement in urban areas, however, presents a much more complex interaction between the tunnel and its shafts, the ground and the building.

Constitutive Material models for Finite element simulation of Tunnel

  • Mohr-Coulomb, Tresca
  • Drucker-Prager, Von Mises
  • Transversely isotropic
  • Duncan-Chang
  • Hoek-Brown
  • Jointed Rock
  • Modified Cam-Clay
  • Modified Mohr-Coulomb (Cap model)
  • Special interface models
  • User supplied subroutine
  • Multi-directional fixed crack model
  • Total-strain crack models with fixed and rotating cracks
  • Fiber reinforced material models
  • Creep and shrinkage models

Effect of blast and explosion in tunnel and investigation Crack pattern in Concrete

Finite element simulation of tunnel construction and loading

By using the Finite Element Method and correspond special purpose software, it is possible to create detailed 2D and 3D analyses of the interaction between the building, the ground, the tunnel and its shafts. The analysis of existing and new build tunnel linings under the effect of events causing structural damage, freezing, fire, flood, or earthquake are critical to the safety and longevity of the tunnel.

With FEA, a model of the tunnel segments and joints, along with the soil and grout pressures upon it, and potential factors listed above, can be analyzed to show intrinsic possible deformations.

Finite Element Analysis of Tunnel Include:

  • Drained / undrained analysis
  • In-situ Stress and Pore-pressure Initialization
  • Construction-staged analysis
  • Seepage analysis (steady state / transient)
  • Saturated or partially saturated flow
  • Consolidation analysis (full coupled stress-flow analysis)
  • Pressure dependent degree of saturation
  • Porosity or saturation dependent permeability
  • Deformation dependent density and porosity
  • Large displacement and large strain nonlinear analysis
  • Nonlinear modelling of joints between the TBM lining segments
  • Spectral response analysis (ABS, SRSS, and CQC modal combinations)
  • Fluid-structure interaction
  • Ground freezing analysis including latent heat consumption, thermal expansion and temperature dependent elasto-plasticity
  • Liquefaction simulation
  • Finite Element Modelling of rock bolts, nails or geotextiles in soil
  • Soil-structure interaction with nonlinear behavior for both soil and structure
  • Creep, shrinkage or swelling analysis
  • Young concrete analysis including hydration heat, shrinkage, hardening, visco-elasticity and cracking
Tunnel Explosion Blast Concrete damage and fracture Civil engineering FEA Finite element Simulation Enteknograte, Abaqus Ansys Ls-dyna Enteknograte4
Effect of blast and explosion in tunnel and investigation Crack pattern in Concrete

Enteknograte offers a Virtual Engineering approach with CFD and FEA tools such as MSC Cradle, Ansys Fluent, StarCCM+ for flows simulation and FEA based Codes such as ABAQUS, Ansys, Nastran and LS-Dyna, encompassing the accurate prediction of in-service loads, the performance evaluation, and the integrity assessment including the influence of manufacturing the components.

Tunnel FEA Finite element Simulation Civil Engineering Abaqus Ansys Ls-dyna

Types of Earthquake Analysis

  • Linear transient analysis with different time integration schemes
  • Direct frequency response analysis
  • Modal response analysis & Spectral response analysis
  • Nonlinear transient analysis with different time integration schemes
  • Hybrid frequency-time domain analysis
  • Pushover load & Pushover analysis
Tunnel Concrete damage and fracture Civil engineering FEA Finite element Simulation Enteknograte, Abaqus Ansys Ls-dyna

Finite element analysis for Earthquake engineering include:

  • Discrete and Smeared crack models with fixed and rotating cracks
  • Nonlinear dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis of dock walls and associated structures to demonstrate safety under extreme seismic loading
  • Large scale 3D analysis of reinforced concrete water retaining structures under seismic loading. Full lift-off, sliding and SSI effects considered
  • Seismic design checking to Eurocode
  • Seismic design check of a viscous damped road bridge
  • Seismic analysis of a compacted mass concrete dam
  • Seismic response analysis of a major bridge crossing
  • Dynamic assessment for a cooling tower
  • Geomechanics of Oil & Gas Reservoirs
  • Stability Analysis of Mines
  • Monopile Foundations for Offshore Wind
  • Assessment of viaduct structures on a major high speed railway
  • High speed train resonance study for a span masonry arch structure
  • Dynamic stability analysis of a slender plate girder bridge
  • Dynamic response analysis of a long span steel bridge
  • Slab and wall Seismic analysis for an underground swimming pool
  • Dynamic SSI analysis of foundations
  • LNG concrete containment tank Seismic analyses


We pride ourselves on empowering each client to overcome the challenges of their most demanding projects.

concrete bridge bridge Abaqus Ansys Etabs Sap Cype finite element CFd Simulation

Finite element analysis for Earthquake engineering and Seismic Design: Structural, Soil and Rocks dynamics

For many non-standard structures, a proper earthquake design requires a dynamic finite element analysis. For simple assessment, a linear analysis in frequency domain may be sufficient. However, for other applications, the full nonlinear characteristics of possible failure mechanisms and interaction of the structure with ground and environment need to be considered in a nonlinear time stepping analysis. Enteknograte offers solutions for both simple linear dynamic analysis, which can be applied for the design of structures, and also full nonlinear dynamic analysis taking into account the loading history of the structure.

Finite element simulation of Tunnel

Ground movement is an inevitable risk to nearby structures which must be carefully assessed, both at the planning stage and as the project unfolds. This, in addition to the potential negative effect on the safety of construction and the project cost, means that the ability to make these predictions accurately is key. Surface settlement caused by shallow tunnel construction in Greenfield sites can be predicted with some confidence. Surface settlement in urban areas, however, presents a much more complex interaction between the tunnel and its shafts, the ground and the building.

FEA and CFD Based Bridge Simulation

Wind-Induced Vibrations, Aerodynamics, Soil-Structure & Soil-Pile Interaction, Seismic Assessment, Damping System, Fatigue and Fracture
When bridges are subjected to external conditions such as seismic forces and foundation scour, the stress-strain relationship of the bridge materials is altered, which directly impacts the safety and performance of the structure. In order to ensure the safety of the bridge, we should consider nonlinear effects such as Wind-Induced Vibrations, Soil-Structure Interaction, Soil-Pile Interaction, damping System, Fatigue and Fracture mechanics of concrete and metals in design step and using composite materials to the reinforcement of bridge structures. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and CFD is a very powerful tool to capture all physics that affects bridge behavior in real-world performance.

Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI)

Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) calculations allow the mutual interaction between a flowing fluid and adjacent bodies to be calculated.
The body forces generated by fluids flowing are highly sensitive to the shape and curvature of adjacent surfaces. By coupling a CFD solver and the FEA solver, the deformation of a body resulting from the fluid loads and the subsequent modification of the flow field due to the newly deformed geometry can be computed iteratively. This technique allows aeroelastic instabilities such as flutter, to be detected and avoided early in the design cycle. Similarly, where structures are subjected to cyclic fatigue loading, such as rotor-stator interaction in compressor applications or vortex shedding around civil structures, these load effects can be accurately quantified to allow the fatigue life of the structure to be assessed.

Finite element analysis of concrete: Discrete cracking, Smeared crack and XFEM for concrete fracture and damage Simulation

In materials science, fracture toughness refers to the ability of a material containing a crack to resist fracture. Specifically, fracture toughness testing characterizes resistance to fracture in a neutral environment with a sharp crack, and is one of the most important properties of any material for virtually all design applications. Finite Element (FEA) Fracture simulation is used in design and fabrication to understand and prevent brittle fracture in concrete structures. It can also be used to determine the useful life of concrete structures under different conditions, including fatigue, corrosion and elevated temperatures.

Geotechnical Simulation: Finite Element for Soil and Rock Mechanics in Foundations, Embankments, Tunnels, Excavations, Slope Stability, Mines and Dams

Geotechnical applications and the interaction between the ground and structure, often provide engineers with technically demanding challenges that are best solved with special purpose finite element method software. Finite element method provides a wide range of state-of-the art constitutive models for tackling soil and rock materials in applications as diverse as foundations, embankments, tunnels, excavations, slope stability, mines and dams.

Finite Element Simulation of Dam

Analysis of Dams is one of the specialties that need extensive experience of using material models and analysis capabilities that must be include phased (staged) construction, soil-structure and fluid-structure interaction, user supplied material models, large range of interface models, large displacement and large strain analyses, material non-linearity, time and ambient dependency effects, and nonlinear dynamic analysis.

Ventilation and Comfort: CFD and FEA Modeling

Occupant thermal comfort and indoor air quality are the primary objectives of HVAC design for buildings and vehicles. Predicting room conditions (air velocity, temperature, relative humidity, thermal radiation, contaminants) which are affected by changes due to heat loss and solar gains through the structure (wall, roof, windows, doors) provides necessary information for design improvement.

Architectural Acoustic Consulting Services: Environmental Noise, Auralization, Sound and Vibration Isolation per ASTM and ANSI Standards

Enteknograte Corp. has become an industry leader through our wide range of experience in advanced simulation-based design procedures, and our cutting-edge architectural acoustic consulting services. Enteknograte conducts field sound level certifications for architects, engineers, surveyors, developers, flooring contractors, and various governmental agencies, as well compliance testing for new equipment, community noise, and industrial noise per ASTM and ANSI standards.

Civil Engineering: Seismic Design, Earthquake, Tunnel, Dam, Concrete Structures and Geotechnical Multiphysics Simulation

Enteknograte, offer a wide range of consulting services based on many years of experience using FEA and CFD softwares in Civil Engineering: Earthquake, Tunnel, Dam and Geotechnical. The Company is involved in analyses projects with advanced applications that focus on aspects of computational mechanics. In addition, we carry out research projects that lead to future extensions or enhancements to FEA and CFD package, or result in special software with Matlab and other high-end programming language for Structural and geotechnical simulation.

Finite Element Analysis of Durability and Fatigue Life

Vibration Fatigue, Creep, Welded Structures Fatigue, Elastomer and Composite Fatigue with Ansys Ncode, Simulia FE-Safe, MSC CAEFatigue, FEMFAT
Durability often dominates development agendas, and empirical evaluation is by its nature time-consuming and costly. Simulation provides a strategic approach to managing risk and cost by enabling design concepts or design changes to be studied before investment in physical evaluation. The industry-leading fatigue Simulation technology such as Simulia FE-SAFE, Ansys Ncode Design Life and FEMFAT used to calculate fatigue life of multiaxial, welds, short-fibre composite, vibration, crack growth, thermo-mechanical fatigue.

FEA (Finite Element) Welding Simulation: RSW (Resistance Spot Welding), FSW (Friction Stir Welding), Pressure Welding, Arc, Electron and Laser Beam Welding

Enteknograte engineers simulate the Welding with innovative CAE and virtual prototyping available in the non-linear structural codes such as LS-DYNA, Ansys, Comsol, Simufact Welding, ESI SysWeld and ABAQUS. The Finite element analysis of welding include Arc Welding, laser Beam Welding, RSW, FSW and transfer the results of welding simulation for next simulation like NVH, Crash test, Tension, Compression and shear test and fatigue simulation.

Hydrodynamics CFD simulation, Coupled with FEA for FSI Analysis of Marine and offshore structures

Transient Resistance, Propulsion, Sea-Keeping and Maneuvering Simulation, Cavitation, Vibration and Fatigue
Hydrodynamics is a common application of CFD and a main core of Enteknograte expertise for ship, boat, yacht, marine and offshore structures simulation based design. Coupling Hydrodynamic CFD Simulation in Ansys Fluent, Siemens Star-ccm+ and MSC Cradle with structural finite element solver such as Abaqus and Ansys, enable us to Simulate most complicated industrial problem such as Cavitation, Vibration and Fatigue induced by hydrodynamics fluctuation, Transient Resistance, Propulsion, Sea-Keeping and Maneuvering Simulation, considering two way FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) coupling technology.

Integrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Machine Learning - Deep Learning with CFD & FEA Simulation

Machine learning is a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. It is a branch of Artificial Intelligence based on the idea that systems can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention. With Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in CAE, that is Mechanical Engineering and FEA and CFD Simulations as design tools, our CAE engineers evaluate the possible changes (and limits) coming from Machine learning, whether Deep Learning (DL), or Support vector machine (SVM) or even Genetic algorithms to specify definitive influence in some optimization problems and the solution of complex systems.

Aerodynamics Simulation: Coupling CFD with MBD, FEA and 1D-System Simulation

Aerodynamics studies can cover the full speed range of low speed, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows as well as turbulence and flow control. System properties such as mass flow rates and pressure drops and fluid dynamic forces such as lift, drag and pitching moment can be readily calculated in addition to the wake effects. This data can be used directly for design purposes or as in input to a detailed stress analysis. Aerodynamics CFD simulation with sophisticated tools such as MSC Cradle, Ansys Fluent and Siemens Star-ccm+ allows the steady-state and transient aerodynamics of heating ventilation & air conditioning (HVAC) systems, vehicles, aircraft, structures, wings and rotors to be computed with extremely high levels of accuracy.

Heat Transfer and Thermal Analysis: Fluid-Structure Interaction with Coupled CFD and Finite Element Based Simulation

We analyze system-level thermal management of vehicle component, including underhood, underbody and brake systems, and design for heat shields, electronics cooling, HVAC, hybrid systems and human thermal comfort. Our Finite Element (LS-Dyna, Ansys, Abaqus) and CFD simulation (Siemens Start-ccm+, Ansys Fluent , Ansys CFX and OpenFoam) for heat transfer analysis, thermal management, and virtual test process can save time and money in the design and development process, while also improving the thermal comfort and overall quality of the final product.

Acoustics and Vibration: FEA and CFD for AeroAcoustics, VibroAcoustics and NVH Analysis

Noise and vibration analysis is becoming increasingly important in virtually every industry. The need to reduce noise and vibration can arise because of government legislation, new lightweight constructions, use of lower cost materials, fatigue failure or increased competitive pressure. With deep knowledge in FEA, CFD and Acoustic simulation, advanced Acoustic solvers and numerical methods used by Enteknograte engineers to solve acoustics, vibro-acoustics, and aero-acoustics problems in automotive manufacturers and suppliers, aerospace companies, shipbuilding industries and consumer product manufacturers.

Blast, Explosion & Fire: Blast Resistance with Protection Against Ballistic Attacks

Enteknograte engineers simulate the Blast and Explosion with innovative CAE and virtual prototyping available in the non-linear structural codes MSC Dytran, LS-DYNA, Ansys Autodyn, and ABAQUS. Enteknograte Engineers can simulate any type of Blast and Explosion such as air blast, Underwater explosion (UNDEX) and Fragmentation due to blast to survey structural integrity in High Rate Loading Condition. Enteknograte performs assessment of fire and explosion loads using state-of-the-art CFD software. Enteknograte carries out structural design verification as well as studies of structures subjected to fires and explosions with Complex finite element models.