CFD and FEA in Civil Engineering: Earthquake, Tunnel, Dam and Geotechnical Multiphysics Simulation

Enteknograte, offer a wide range of consulting services based on many years of experience using FEA and CFD softwares in Civil Engineering: Earthquake, Tunnel, Dam and Geotechnical. The Company is involved in analyses projects with advanced applications that focus on aspects of computational mechanics. In addition, we carry out research projects that lead to future extensions or enhancements to FEA and CFD package, or result in special software with Matlab and other high-end programming language for Structural and geotechnical simulation.

Enteknograte engineering team use advanced CAE software with special features for mixing the best of both FEA tools and CFD solvers: CFD codes such as Ansys FluentStarCCM+OpenFOAM and FEA Codes such as ANSYSABAQUSNASTRANLS-Dyna and MSC Marc. With combination of deep knowledge and experience in FEA and CFD and sophisticated design tools, Enteknograte engineers can solve any problem with any level of complexity in civil engineering including:

Engineering Simulation Laboratory

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Tunnel Construction steps FEA Simulation Including Pore pressure - Soil structure Interaction

Finite element analysis of Reinforced Concrete

Modelling the damage initiation and propagation until structural failure can be carried out by realistically modelling the geometry and the material behavior of concrete, and individual reinforcement, individually and by defining their complete interconnection. Furthermore, the wide range of advanced special purpose finite element user defined and general-purpose software analysis functionality allows modelling of the structure from construction, through service life to failure. Design and assessment of Service and Ultimate Limit States up to integral failure analysis can be carried out in single FEA software by using advanced method for simulation such complicated and nonlinear material and structure.

Modelling and analysis Include:
  • Young hardening concrete with associated cooling
  • Nonlinear joints
  • Random field material models
  • Pre and post tensioning tendons
  • Bond-slip between reinforcement and concrete
  • Phased analysis for accurate description of load history
  • Coupled heat-stress analysis for thermal effects
  • Ambient influence on material behavior
  • Dynamic analysis
  • Dedicated post-processing of crack patterns
Constitutive Material models
  • Discrete cracking
  • Smeared crack models with fixed and rotating cracks
  • Material aging
  • Creep and shrinkage models according to different international design codes
  • Elasto-plastic models such as Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker- Prager, Rankine
  • Maekawa-Fukuura model for cyclic loading
  • Von-Mises plasticity with hardening and hysteretic models for steel reinforcement
  • User-supplied materials
  • Modified two-surface model for cyclic behavior of steel
  • Menegotto-Pinto, Monti Nuti, and Dodd Restreppo plasticity models for reinforcements

Finite element simulation of tunnel

With increasing congestion in modern cities, we are turning even more to underground transportation systems. The consequence is not only tunneling under existing structures but, often, tunneling under existing tunnels. Ground movement is an inevitable risk to nearby structures which must be carefully assessed, both at the planning stage and as the project unfolds. This, in addition to the potential negative effect on the safety of construction and the project cost, means that the ability to make these predictions accurately is key. Surface settlement caused by shallow tunnel construction in Greenfield sites can be predicted with some confidence. Surface settlement in urban areas, however, presents a much more complex interaction between the tunnel and its shafts, the ground and the building.

By using the Finite Element Method and correspond special purpose software, it is possible to create detailed 2D and 3D analyses of the interaction between the building, the ground, the tunnel and its shafts. The analysis of existing and new build tunnel linings under the effect of events causing structural damage, freezing, fire, flood, or earthquake are critical to the safety and longevity of the tunnel. With FEA, a model of the tunnel segments and joints, along with the soil and grout pressures upon it, and potential factors listed above, can be analyzed to show intrinsic possible deformations.

Constitutive Material models
  • Mohr-Coulomb, Tresca
  • Drucker-Prager, Von Mises
  • Transversely isotropic
  • Duncan-Chang
  • Hoek-Brown
  • Jointed Rock
  • Modified Cam-Clay
  • Modified Mohr-Coulomb (Cap model)
  • Special interface models
  • User supplied subroutine
  • Multi-directional fixed crack model
  • Total-strain crack models with fixed and rotating cracks
  • Fiber reinforced material models
  • Creep and shrinkage models
Analysis of Tunnel Include:
  • In-situ Stress and Pore-pressure Initialization
  • Drained / undrained analysis
  • Construction-staged analysis
  • Seepage analysis (steady state / transient)
  • Saturated or partially saturated flow
  • Consolidation analysis (full coupled stress-flow analysis)
  • Pressure dependent degree of saturation
  • Porosity or saturation dependent permeability
  • Deformation dependent density and porosity
  • Large displacement and large strain nonlinear analysis
  • Special elements for nonlinear modelling of joints between the TBM lining segments
  • Eigenvalue analysis (eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes, participation factors, effective masses)
  • Direct frequency response analysis
  • Modal frequency response analysis
  • Spectral response analysis (ABS, SRSS, and CQC modal combinations)
  • Linear and nonlinear time domain analysis (total, transient and steady state, solution)
  • Various time integration methods, e.g. Newmark, Wilson- theta, Runge-Kutta
  • Hybrid frequency-time domain analysis
  • Fluid-structure interaction
  • Multi-directional base acceleration loads
  • Prescribed nodal acceleration loads
  • Distributed mass elements (2D line elements + 3D surface elements)
  • Bounding/boundary elements for far field behavior (2D line elements + 3D surface elements)
  • Viscous, structural, and continuous damping
  • Ground freezing analysis including latent heat consumption, thermal expansion and temperature dependent elasto-plasticity
  • 2D/3D liquefaction models including user-supplied models
  • Generalized plane strain elements for 2D modelling of inclined tunnels or shafts in strongly anisotropic in-situ stresses
  • Mesh-independent embedded bars and grids that allow easy modelling of rock bolts, nails or geotextiles in solid soil elements, and reinforcement in beam or shell structural elements
  • Soil-structure interaction with nonlinear behavior for both soil and structure
  • Transient nonlinear analysis for viscous behavior such as creep, shrinkage or swelling, ambient influence such as temperature or chemical concentration
  • Young concrete analysis including hydration heat, shrinkage, hardening, visco-elasticity and cracking

Finite Element Simulation of Dam

Analysis of Dams is one of the specialties that need extensive experience of using material models and analysis capabilities that must be include phased (staged) construction, soil-structure and fluid-structure interaction, user supplied material models, large range of interface models, large displacement and large strain analyses, material non-linearity, time and ambient dependency effects, and nonlinear dynamic analysis.

Dynamic Analysis of Dams Include:
  • Direct frequency analysis, modal response analysis, and spectral response analysis, with fluid-structure interaction
  • Linear and nonlinear time domain analysis with a wide choice of time integration schemes
  • Hybrid frequency-time domain analysis, with possibility to include compressibility of the fluid and bottom absorption
  • Multi-directional acceleration loads
  • Viscous, structural and continuous damping
  • Specified or calculated initial conditions
  • Fully coupled consolidation
  • Saturated and partially saturated soils
  • Steady-state and transient ground-water flow
  • Drained/undrained soil
  • Phased analysis
  • Nonlinear analysis
  • Coupled thermo-stress analysis
  • Young hardening concrete behavior also with cooling
  • Time, temperature and maturity dependency
  • Discrete and smeared crack analysis
Constitutive Material models
  • Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager
  • Tresca and Von Mises
  • Modified Mohr-Coulomb (double-hardening)
  • Hoek-Brown and Jointed-rock
  • Modified Cam-Clay
  • Jardine (London Clay)
  • Nonlinear elasticity (Duncan-Chang)
  • Smeared crack models with fixed and rotating cracks
  • Material aging
  • Liquefaction
  • Linear, nonlinear and hyper elasticity
  • Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager
  • Multi-directional fixed crack model
  • Total strain crack models
  • Several models for joints
  • Viscoelasticity
  • Shrinkage
  • Linear elastic and plastic reinforcements
  • User-supplied materials

Ventilation and Comfort: CFD and FEA Modeling

Occupant thermal comfort and indoor air quality are the primary objectives of HVAC design for buildings and vehicles. Predicting room conditions (air velocity, temperature, relative humidity, thermal radiation, contaminants) which are affected by changes due to heat loss and solar gains through the structure (wall, roof, windows, doors) provides necessary information for design improvement. Using such simulation results coupled with information about an occupant’s activity and clothing, designers can assess a variety of comfort criteria. This is particularly valuable in testing the effectiveness of novel strategies and concepts including natural and mixed-mode ventilation. It is also important in minimizing energy consumption through the improvement of building materials and available HVAC equipment.

Fire, Smoke Movement and Explosions

Fire and smoke propagation represents a significant risk for public safety in buildings, tunnels and underground rail systems. Smoke management systems are critical life-saving devices, and their expected performance must be evaluated in the design stage. Fire suppression systems must also be understood and optimized. Material resistance to explosion, fire and extreme heat, as well as structural deterioration from catastrophic events, must be analyzed accurately. Simulating explosions and fire scenarios is an important stage of a performance-based design cycle. The results can demonstrate that smoke/fire management system designs maintain both safe conditions for occupants and the structural integrity of the building.

Geotechnical Simulation: FEA based design and optimization for Soil and Rock Engineering

Geotechnical applications and the interaction between the ground and structure, often provide engineers with technically demanding challenges that are best solved with special purpose finite element method software. Finite element method provides a wide range of state-of-the art constitutive models for tackling soil and rock materials in applications as diverse as foundations, embankments, tunnels, excavations, slope stability, mines and dams.

The proposed FEA analysis methods by Enteknograte for pore pressure and consolidation, groundwater flow, earthquake and liquefaction problems are some of the most advanced available and are essential for accurate analysis of these types of coupled problems.

Enteknograte also offers advanced techniques and methodologies based on client needs to model steel and reinforced concrete structures that interact with the ground.

Material models suitable for soil & rock:
  • Mohr-Coulomb, Tresca
  • Drucker-Prager, Von Mises
  • Transversely Isotropic
  • Duncan-Chang
  • Hoek-Brown
  • Jointed rock
  • Modified cam-clay
  • Modified Mohr-Coulomb (cap model)
  • Classic brick
  • Special Interface models
  • User-supplied subroutine
Geotechnical Analysis Include:
  • In-situ stress and pore-pressure initialization
  • Construction staged analysis
  • Drained/undrained analysis
  • Seepage analysis (steady state/transient)
  • Saturated or partially saturated flow
  • Consolidation analysis (full coupled stress-flow analysis)
  • Pressure dependent degree of saturation
  • Freely moving phreatic surfaces
  • Porosity or saturation dependent permeability
  • Deformation dependent density and porosity
  • Dynamic (linear and nonlinear) and liquefaction analysis
  • Special (embedded) pile elements with nonlinear pile shaft and toe interfaces
  • Anchors, nails, and rock bolt modelling
  • Geotextiles
  • Strength reduction analysis (phi-c)
  • Engineering liquefaction

Earthquake engineering: Nonlinear FEA for structure analysis and design optimization

Today, new structures in earthquake sensitive areas are designed to sustain earthquakes without danger of damage or collapse. But if the condition of the structure has been unidentifiably changed, eg. by damage to the structure, deterioration of materials or altered loading, then the effect on earth- quake resistance may be significantly altered.

For many non-standard structures, a proper earthquake design requires a dynamic finite element analysis. For simple assessment, a linear analysis in frequency domain may be sufficient. However, for other applications, the full nonlinear characteristics of possible failure mechanisms and interaction of the structure with ground and environment need to be considered in a nonlinear time stepping analysis

Enteknograte offers solutions for both simple linear dynamic analysis, which can be applied for the design of structures, and also full nonlinear dynamic analysis taking into account the loading history of the structure.

Types of Earthquake Analysis
  • Linear transient analysis with different time integration schemes
  • Direct frequency response analysis
  • Modal response analysis & Spectral response analysis
  • Nonlinear transient analysis with different time integration schemes
  • Hybrid frequency-time domain analysis
  • Pushover load & Pushover analysis

All dynamic analysis procedures can be used in combination with fluid-structure interaction effects. At a fluid-structure interface a full coupled acceleration-pressure matrix is calculated for normal displacements on the interface. This interaction matrix accounts for effect of fluid dynamics to the structure in the structural analysis. Frequency dependent effects, e.g. fluid compressibility and boundary damping, can be defined with a range of analysis types.

Specific analysis functions
  • Possibility to add stress-stiffness to linear elastic stiffness matrix in frequency analysis
  • For direct Frequency Response output of complex results and/or amplitude-phase results
  • Lanczos Eigensolver with various decomposition techniques, shifting option, and automatic ordering
  • Spectral Response with ABS, SRSS, and CQC output
  • Euler backward, Newmark, Wilson-theta, Hilber-Hughes- Taylor, and Runge-Kutta time-integration

Nonlinear materials for earthquake analysis

  • Total-strain cracking models
  • Maekawa-Fukuura concrete model ( Multi-Axial Damage and Cracked Concrete models)
  • Monti-Nuti, Menegotto-Pinto and Dodd-Restreppo-steel models
  • Modified 2-surface steel model
  • Hardin-Drnevich and Ramberg-Osgood simple soil models
  • UBC, Bowl, Nishi and Towhata-Iai liquefaction models
  • Engineering liquefaction analysis

Enteknograte carries out analysis consultancy services on behalf of its clients, which include the modelling, analysis, interpretation and presentation of results in report or other formats. This work is done with the advanced FEA and CFD software based on clients need. The main expertise of our analysis consultancy in civil engineering work is in Structural, Geotechnical, and Oil & Gas Engineering.

Rapid development of novel, advanced, integrated CAE methods for design, structural analysis and construction include:

  • Structural analysis of floating reinforced concrete troughs forming approach structures for a tunnel
  • Analysis of slip formed reinforced concrete slot drains for airport use
  • Cable/fabric tower analysis
  • Nonlinear dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis of dock walls and associated structures to demonstrate safety under extreme seismic loading
  • Dynamic SSI analysis of foundations for pilot centrifuge
  • Dynamic response assessment of foundations and support frames for rotating machinery
  • Structural analysis of water/sewage treatment tanks, including SSI effects
  • Natural frequency and seismic response analysis of a cantilevered glass canopy
  • Stress and fatigue analysis of penstock support for hydro power installation
  • Analysis of LNG storage vessels
  • Static, wind and dynamic assessment for a cooling tower
  • LNG concrete containment tank analyses including thermal, spillage, 2D static, 3D static and bottom-corner inner-tank with nonlinear contact.
  • Static, thermal and stress analysis of Dam
  • Large scale 3D analysis of reinforced concrete water retaining structures under seismic loading. Full lift-off, sliding and SSI effects considered
  • Plate girder buckling assessments
  • Seismic design checking to Eurocode
  • Cable stayed airport link bridge
  • Stainless steel plate box girder footbridge
  • Seismic design check of a viscous damped road bridge
  • Collapse analysis of fabricated steel bridge bearings


CFD FEA abaqus ansys fluent OPENFOAM CODE-ASTER star ccm siemens heeds autodyn ls-dyna finite element
  • Seismic analysis of a compacted mass concrete dam
  • Staged construction modelling of tunnel
  • Slab and wall analysis for an underground swimming pool
  • Wind and crowd loading assessments for stadiums and grandstands
  • Nonlinear analysis of cable stayed telecommunications masts and other tension structures
  • Nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of incremental backfill and surcharge on flexible culvert
  • Offshore turbine modelling
  • Assessment of dynamic effects of trains on under bridges
  • Staged construction analysis of an RC box girder bridge
  • Stability analysis of a road bridge to demonstrate adequacy, which could not be shown with traditional methods
  • Dynamic response analysis of a long span steel bridge
  • Buckling analysis of bridge beams to demonstrate capacity for vehicle loads
  • Dynamic stability analysis of a slender plate girder bridge
  • Assessment of viaduct structures on a major highspeed railway
  • High speed train resonance study for a span masonry arch structure
  • Seismic response analysis of a major bridge crossing
  • Post-failure rolling path tooth analysis for a retractable bridge
  • Buckling assessment of a plated lattice girder bridge structure
  • Frequency & Vibration Analysis
  • Earthquake Analysis including Damage
  • Fire & Thermal Safety Assesment Analysis
  • Explosion Blast Analysis
  • Road & Tarmac Fatigue Analysis
  • Wind Loading Analysis
  • Heat transfer Analysis
  • Geomechanics of Oil & Gas Reservoirs
  • Stability Analysis of Mines
  • Monopile Foundations for Offshore Wind

We can develop and customize new software based on your needs

Better product development with advanced simulation.

Calling upon our wide base of in-house capabilities covering strategic and technical consulting, engineering, FEA and CFD based manufacturing and analytical software development – we offer each of our clients the individual level of support they are looking for, providing transparency, time savings and cost efficiencies.

Enteknograte engineers participate in method development, advanced simulation work, software training and support. Over experiences in engineering consulting and design development enables Enteknograte’s engineering team to display strong/enormous client focus and engineering experience. The Enteknograte team supports engineering communities to leverage CFD-FEA simulation softwares and methodologies. It leads to the creation of tailored solutions, aligned with the overall product development process of Enteknograte clients.

Reduced Costs
Easier, earlier, quicker analysis enables design simplification, especially on unusual hull designs. Early design correction avoids costly rework in production.
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Quicker Delivery
Reduce project delays caused by late-emerging design changes and rework. Reduce contingency planning.
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Better Design Quality
Easier analysis workflow promotes more thorough design development.
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Reduce Project Risk
Begin construction work with increased confidence. Reduce the risks and contingencies in tackling unconventional designs.
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Finite element Simulation of Seismic Behavior of Masonry Wall
Tunnel Blasting Simulation
Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Beam
soil pile geotextile interaction ssi abaqus ansys ls-dyna
Soil-Pile-Geotextile Interaction

Considering complexity and needs to have new procedure and constitutive equation, we must try to develop new FEA and CFD based software to overcome engineering challenges.

FEA and CFD based Programming needs experience and deep knowledge in both Solid or fluid mechanics and programming language such as Matlab, Fortran, C++ and Python.

Enteknograte’s engineering team use advanced methodology and procedure in programming and correct constitutive equation in solid, fluid and multiphysics environment based on our clients needs.

We use subroutine’s with programming languages such as Fortan, C and Python in CFD and FEA sofware such as Abaqus, Ansys, Fluent and Star-ccm+ to add new capability and Constitutive equation.

Enteknograte use Mathematical Methods and Models for Engineering Simulation. We, focuses on numerical modelling and algorithms development for the solution of challenging problems in several engineering sectors specialized in the development of software for the numerical discretization of partial differential equations, linear algebra, optimization, data analysis, High Performance Computing for several engineering applications.

Fracture and Crack Simulation of Dam in Earthquake and seismic loading
Fracture and Crack Pattern Simulation of Dam in Earthquake and seismic loading

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We use advanced virtual engineering tools, supported by a team of technical experts, to global partners in different industries.

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Our Software team is made up of developers, industry experts and technical consultants ensuring we can respond to each client’s individual needs

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