Cabin Aerodynamics: CFD and FEA for The Passenger’s Thermal Comfort & Human Thermal Modeling, Aeroacoustic analysis of HVAC components, fans, blowers, air channels

FEA & CFD Based Simulation Design Analysis Virtual prototyping MultiObjective Optimization

The passenger’s thermal and acoustic comfort is an essential design-criterion for the air-conditioning and customization of a cabin. In industry, engineers conduct costly and time-consuming test series with specifically built cabin mock-ups to obtain some information about the expected passenger’s sensation of comfort already in the design process.

Cabin Aerodynamics CFD Simulation noise acoustic Comfort Aeroacoustic analysis HVAC components fans blowers air channels
Aerodynamics, underhood thermal management, rotating equipment analysis of pumps, turbochargers, fans, etc. and aero- acoustics and vibro-acoustics consideration taken into account to capture real-world cabin condition of passengers and satisfy thermal comfort and noise level limitations.
CFD Simulation can predict the passenger’s comfort by means of advanced software and to allow for an interactive layout of an optimized cabin. The CFD computations of the air flow in the cabin’s interior and the flow through cabin air outlets and noise level is optimized with the help flow and acoustic simulations to achieve design specifications.

Passenger Thermal Comfort

Our engineers use CFD tools in co-simulation with 1D system modeling softwares for develop and test control strategies, and study the impact of the system on overall vehicle thermal management, analyze thermal interactions between air conditioning loops or heat pump systems, the cooling system, additional heaters, and the cabin or vehicle interior, and control the cabin cool down or heating processes.

Enteknograte’s engineering team with deep knowledge in CFD and FEA and uses advanced softwares such as Siemens Star-ccm+, Ansys Fluent, Abaqus and Matlab Simulink to check the impact of exterior conditions and technological choices on the air temperature and humidity within the cabin, and assess human thermal comfort sensation and study and optimize the design of air conditioning and heat pump systems to ascertain that the system provides optimal passenger comfort in any innovative vehicle (VTOL, e-VTOL and UAM – Urban Air Mobility).

Cabin Aerodynamics CFD Simulation Thermal Comfort Aeroacoustic analysis HVAC components fans blowers air channels
Human Thermal Comfort Modeling aerodynamic noise reduction CFD MSC Cradle Star-ccm Siemens Ansys Fluent
Cabin Aerodynamics CFD Simulation Thermal Comfort Aeroacoustic analysis HVAC components fans blowers air channels 2

Human Thermal Modeling

Based on established models, the Human Thermal modeling is a state-of-the-art segmental model that operates within our thermal analysis software to provide a comprehensive simulation of human thermo-regulation under transient and asymmetrical environmental conditions. All thermo-regulatory responses are computed locally based on environmental conditions, clothing, body percentile, and activity level.

  • Blood flow
  • Respiration
  • Shivering/sweating
  • Conductive contact

Thermal Analysis Application

Human thermal applications include architectural analysis, passenger compartment design for vehicles and trains, firefighter safety equipment, and advanced materials for clothing systems.

  • Protective clothing simulation
  • HVAC optimization
  • Window placement studies
  • Localized building design
  • Heated and cooled seats
  • Human effectiveness and safety



Rotors Aerodynamic Simulation via Coupled FEA (MBD)/CFD Method: Aeroelastic Behavior Assessment

The blade vortex interactions (BVI) generate high load peaks and represent one of the main noise sources of a helicopter. In contrast to the rotors the flow around the fuselage is basically incompressible and many helicopters have a blunt body with large flow separations behind the fuselage. Depending on the flight conditions there may be strong interactions between main and tail rotors, rotor head, fuselage and the empennage, e.g. the tail shake phenomenon which is mainly caused by separations behind the rotor head.


With deep Knowledge in FEA and CFD and combining or coupling different CAE tools for real world simulation such as MSC Cradle, Ansys Fluent, Siemens Star-ccm+, Abaqus and MSC Nastran, Enteknograte engineering team can handle any aerodynamic problem include wind turbine, Wind Farm design and wind effects including Vertical axis wind turbine, Horizontal axis wind turbine, Complete motion of the rotor in winds and loads extraction for FEM analysis, Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) investigation and flutter occurence.

Race Car Aerodynamic Simulation and Optimization via CFD

We provide Engineering Analysis of fluid flow over a body, wing or component with Star-ccm+ and Ansys Fluent. We can work from a drawing, CAD file or can scan the geometry of your car or component. A standard analysis includes a report including the following information: Drag Force, Down Force, Drag Coefficient, Pressure Coefficient, Pressure Contour Plot, Velocity Contour and Velocity Streamlines.

Drone Aerodynamic & Acoustic Simulation Based Design

For drone dynamics, the acoustics and noise challenge is to design disc loading, rotor tip speed, propeller interactions and vehicle scattering in such a way that the overall in-situ noise levels are reduced. It is a multidisciplinary issue, calling for the combined use of various simulation techniques.

Aerodynamics Simulation

Aerodynamics Simulation can cover the full speed range of low speed, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows as well as turbulence and flow control. System properties such as mass flow rates and pressure drops and fluid dynamic forces such as lift, drag and pitching moment can be readily calculated in addition to the wake effects. This data can be used directly for design purposes or as in input to a detailed stress analysis. Aerodynamics CFD simulation with sophisticated tools such as MSC Cradle, Ansys Fluent and Siemens Star-ccm+ allows the steady-state and transient aerodynamics of heating ventilation & air conditioning (HVAC) systems, vehicles, aircraft, structures, wings and rotors to be computed with extremely high levels of accuracy.

Aerodynamic Noise Simulation

Sound caused by pressure oscillation of fluid, such as wind noise, and sound caused by resonance can be predicted using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a weak compressible flow model. A Fast Fourier Transform calculation can be used within the CFD software to predict the frequency of noise. Predicting the noise generated by complex flows from steady CFD solutions allows us to study the noise generated by turbulent flows from CFD solutions.

Multibody Dynamics & NVH (Noise, vibration, and harshness)

Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) are critical factors in the performance of many mechanical designs but designing for optimum NVH can be difficult. While strength and durability limits are being pushed further and further, requirements for noise reduction are becoming more stringent. In addition, focus is increasingly being placed on transmission and powertrain noise because other sources could be reduced meanwhile.

Electromagnetic Multiphysics

FEA & CFD Based Simulation Including Thermal Stress, Fatigue, and Noise, Vibration & Harshness – NVH for Electric Motors
Enteknograte Finite Element Electromagnetic Field simulation solution which uses the highly accurate finite element solvers and methods such as Ansys Maxwell, Simulia Opera, Simulia CST, JMAG, Cedrat FLUX, Siemens MAGNET and COMSOL to solve static, frequency-domain, and time-varying electromagnetic and electric fields includes a wide range of solution types for a complete design flow for your electromagnetic and electromechanical devices in different industries.

Acoustics and Vibration: FEA and CFD for AeroAcoustics, VibroAcoustics and NVH Analysis

Noise and vibration analysis is becoming increasingly important in virtually every industry. The need to reduce noise and vibration can arise because of government legislation, new lightweight constructions, use of lower cost materials, fatigue failure or increased competitive pressure. With deep knowledge in FEA, CFD and Acoustic simulation, advanced Acoustic solvers and numerical methods used by Enteknograte engineers to solve acoustics, vibro-acoustics, and aero-acoustics problems in automotive manufacturers and suppliers, aerospace companies, shipbuilding industries and consumer product manufacturers.

Heat Transfer and Thermal Analysis: Fluid-Structure Interaction with Coupled CFD and Finite Element Based Simulation

We analyze system-level thermal management of vehicle component, including underhood, underbody and brake systems, and design for heat shields, electronics cooling, HVAC, hybrid systems and human thermal comfort. Our Finite Element (LS-Dyna, Ansys, Abaqus) and CFD simulation (Siemens Start-ccm+, Ansys Fluent , Ansys CFX and OpenFoam) for heat transfer analysis, thermal management, and virtual test process can save time and money in the design and development process, while also improving the thermal comfort and overall quality of the final product.

Full Vehicle MultiBody Dynamics Simulation: Car Ride, Driveline, Engine and Tire MBD

With MultiBody Dynamic Simulation, you can perform various analyses on the vehicle to test the design of the different subsystems and see how they influence the overall vehicle dynamics. This includes both on- and off-road vehicles such as cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, and land machinery. Typical full vehicle analysis includes handling, ride, driveline, comfort, and NVH. Automotive models are also used for Realtime applications (HiL, SiL, and MiL). We can also examine the influence of component modifications, including changes in spring rates, damper rates, bushing rates, and anti-roll bar rates, on the vehicle dynamics.

Integrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Machine Learning - Deep Learning with CFD & FEA Simulation

Machine learning is a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. It is a branch of Artificial Intelligence based on the idea that systems can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention. With Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in CAE, that is Mechanical Engineering and FEA and CFD Simulations as design tools, our CAE engineers evaluate the possible changes (and limits) coming from Machine learning, whether Deep Learning (DL), or Support vector machine (SVM) or even Genetic algorithms to specify definitive influence in some optimization problems and the solution of complex systems.

Turbomachinery Generative Design & Optimization

The sensitivity information comes directly from the flow field so the optimized shape is the one that fits the given flow best. Unlike traditional design methods that rely on trial and error between a given geometry and flow field predicted by CFD codes, we use 3D inverse design method starts by identifying what we want to do to the fluid flow in terms of 3D pressure field and mathematically derives the optimal geometry to achieve that outcome. This significantly reduces the time taken for each design.

Turbine, Pump & Compressor (Axial or Centrifugal)

Multidisciplinary Turbomachinery Design, Analysis & Optimization
We can design axial turbines, Axial Pump, Centrifugal Compressor, Centrifugal Pump and Mixed Flow Compressor/Turbine with or without any pre-loaded profiles, with prismatic (cylindrical) or twisted blades, multiple extractions/injections, inter-stage heat exchangers, Curtis & Rateau stages, impulse & reaction designs, drilled and reamed nozzles, partial admission, etc. Enteknograte’s engineering team use CFD software’s such as Siemens Star-ccm+, Ansys Fluent and Numeca Fine/Turbo in co-simulation with FEA structural solvers, such as Abaqus, Ansys and MSC Nastran.


We pride ourselves on empowering each client to overcome the challenges of their most demanding projects.

Enteknograte engineering team use advanced CAE software with special features for mixing the best of both FEA tools and CFD solvers: CFD codes such as MSC Cradle, Ansys Fluent, Siemens StarCCM+ and FEA Codes such as ABAQUS, Ansys, Nastran, LS-Dyna and MSC Actran for Acoustics and VibroAcoustics simulations.
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